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Sykes Picot Agreement Effects

Many sources claim that Sykes-Picot was in conflict with the Hussein McMahon correspondence of 1915-1916 and that the publication of the agreement in November 1917 caused the resignation of Sir Henry McMahon. [107] There were several differences, the most obvious being Iraq in the British Red Zone and less the idea that British and French advisers would have control of the area designated as being intended for an Arab state. Finally, while the correspondence did not mention Palestine, Haifa and Akkon should be British and the brown zone (a reduced Palestine) should be internationalized. [108] The agreement has thus helped shape the contours of modern nation-states in a region where there were none before. Given that this is essentially an agreement between two colonialist powers outside the region, it would have devastating effects. The agreement was first used directly as the basis for the Anglo-French Vivendi mode of 1918, which provided a framework for the management of enemy occupied territories in the Levant. More broadly, it should indirectly lead to the subsequent division of the Ottoman Empire after the Ottoman defeat of 1918. Shortly after the war, the French ceded Palestine and Mosul to the British. Mandates in the Levant and Mesopotamia were awarded at the San Remo Conference in April 1920, according to the Sykes-Picot framework; the British Mandate for Palestine lasted until 1948, the British Mandate for Mesopotamia was to be replaced by a similar treaty with Iraq, and the French Mandate for Syria and Lebanon lasted until 1946. The Anatolian parts of the agreement were assigned by the Treaty of Sèvres of August 1920; But these ambitions were thwarted by Turkey`s war of independence in 1919/23 and the treaty of Lausanne that followed.

May 16 will mark the hundredth anniversary of the agreement, amid the question of whether its borders can survive the region`s current furies. “The system that has existed for a hundred years has collapsed,” Barham Salih, a former Iraqi deputy prime minister, said in March at the Sulaimani forum in Iraqi Kurdistan. “We don`t know which new system will take its place.” Minutes recorded at a Big Four meeting in Paris on March 20, 1919, attended by Woodrow Wilson, Georges Clemenceau, Vittorio Emanuele Orlando, Lloyd George, and Arthur Balfour,[90] set out the British and French vision of the agreement. This was the first topic addressed during the discussion on Syria and Turkey and was at the center of all the discussions that followed. . . .

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